FS(8)                                                       FS(8)

          fs, exsort - file server maintenance

          help [ command ... ]
          allow [uid]
          arp subcommand
          cfs filesystem
          check [options]
          clean file [ bno [ addr ] ]
          clri [file...]
          cpu [proc]
          create path uid gid perm [lad]
          cwcmd subcommand
          date [[+-] seconds]
          duallow [uid]
          dump [ filesystem ]
          flag flag [ channel ]
          fstat [ files ]
          hangup channel
          newuser name [options]
          profile [01]
          remove [files...]
          route subcommand
          sntp kick
          stats [[-] flags...]
          time command
          trace [number]
          users [file]
          who [user...]
          wormeject [ tunit ]
          wormingest [ tunit ]
          wormoffline drive
          wormonline drive

          disk/exsort [-w] [file]

          Except for exsort, these commands are available only on the
          console of an fs(4) file server.

     FS(8)                                                       FS(8)

          Help prints a `usage string' for the named commands, by
          default all commands.  Also, many commands print menus of
          their options if given incorrect or incomplete parameters.

          Allow disables permission checking and allows wstat for the
          specified uid or for any user if omitted.  This may help in
          initializing a file system.  Use this with caution.

          Arp has two subcommands: print prints the contents of the
          ARP cache and flush flushes it.

          Cfs changes the current file system, that is, the file tree
          to which commands (check, clean, clri, create, cwcmd, dump,
          newuser, profile, remove, and users) apply.  The initial
          filesystem is main.

          Check verifies the consistency of the current file system.
          With no options it checks and reports the status.  It sus-
          pends service while running.  Options are:

          rdall  Read every block in the file system (can take a long
                 time).  Normally, check will stop short of the actual
                 contents of a file and just verify the block

          tag    Fix bad tags; each block has a tag that acts as a
                 backwards pointer for consistency checking.

          ream   Fix bad tags and also clear the contents of blocks
                 that have bad tags.

          pfile  Print every file name.

          pdir   Print every directory name.

          free   Rebuild the list of free blocks with all blocks that
                 are not referenced.  This option is only useful on
                 non-cache/WORM file systems.  If the filesystem was
                 modified, the summary printed at the conclusion of
                 the check may not reflect the true state of the
                 freelist and may also print a list of missing blocks.
                 These missing blocks are actually on the free list
                 and the true state of the filesystem can be deter-
                 mined by running check with no arguments.

          bad    Each block address that is out of range or duplicate
                 is cleared.  Note that only the second and subsequent
                 use of a block is cleared.  Often the problems in a
                 file system are caused by one bad file that has a lot
                 of garbage block addresses.  In such a case, it is
                 wiser to use check to find the bad file (by number of

     FS(8)                                                       FS(8)

                 diagnostic messages) and then use clri to clear the
                 addresses in that file.  After that, check can be
                 used to reclaim the free list.

          touch  Cause every directory and indirect block not on the
                 current WORM disk to be advanced to the current WORM
                 on the next dump.  This is a discredited idea to try
                 to keep operating on the knee of the cache working
                 set.  Buy more cache disk.

          trim   reduces the file system's fsize to fit the device
                 containing the file system.  This is useful after
                 copying a partially-full file system into a slightly
                 smaller device.  Running check free afterward will
                 construct a new free list that contains no blocks
                 outside the new, smaller file system.

          rtmp   Removes temporary files after a recovery from worm.
                 After a cache ream and recover, temporary files and
                 directories refer to invalid data blocks producing
                 checktag errors on access. To get rid of these
                 errors, the rtmp flag can be used with the check com-
                 mand which will truncate temporary directories and
                 remove temporary files.

          Clean prints the block numbers in file's directory entry
          (direct, indirect and doubly indirect) and checks the tags
          of the blocks cited.  If bno is supplied, the bno'th block
          number (using zero origin) is set to addr (defaults to
          zero).  Note that only the block numbers in the directory
          entry itself are examined; clean does not recurse through
          indirect blocks.

          Clri clears the internal directory entry and abandons stor-
          age associated with files. It ignores the usual rules for
          sanity, such as checking against removing a non-empty direc-
          tory.  A subsequent check free will place the abandoned
          storage in the free list.

          Cpu prints the CPU utilization and state of the processes in
          the file server.  If the name of a process type argument is
          given, then CPU utilization for only those processes is

          Create creates a file on the current file system.  Uid and
          gid are names or numbers from /adm/users.  Perm is the low 9
          bits of the permission mode of the file, in octal.  An
          optional final l, a, or d creates a locked file, append-only
          file, or directory.

          Cwcmd controls the cached WORM file systems, specifically
          the current file system.  The subcommands are:

     FS(8)                                                       FS(8)

          mvstate state1 state2 [platter]
               States are none, dirty, dump, dump1, error, read, and
               write.  A mvstate dump1 dump will cause I/O errors in
               the last dump to be retried.  A mvstate dump1 write
               will cause I/O errors in the last dump to be retried in
               reallocated slots in the next dump.  A mvstate read
               none will flush the cache associated with the WORM.  A
               mvstate dump write aborts the background process dump-
               ing to WORM; as a consequence it leaves holes in the
               dump file system.  Other uses are possible but arcane.
               The optional platter limits affected blocks to those on
               that platter.

          prchain [start] [back-flag]
               Print the chain of superblocks for the directory con-
               taining the roots of the dumped file systems, starting
               at block number start (default 0) going forward (back-
               wards if back-flag is supplied and is non-zero).

          searchtag [start] [tag] [blocks]
               Reads the WORM device starting at block start and pro-
               ceeding for blocks blocks (default 1000) until it finds
               a block with numeric tag tag.

          savecache [percent]
               Copy the block numbers, in native endian longwords, of
               blocks in the read state to the file /adm/cache for use
               by disk/exsort.  If an argument is given, then that
               percent (most recently used) of each cache bucket is

          loadcache [dskno]
               Read /adm/cache and for every block there on WORM disk
               side dskno (zero-origin), read the block from WORM to
               the cache.  If dskno is not supplied, all blocks in
               /adm/cache are read.

          morecache dskno [count]
               Read count blocks from the beginning of WORM disk side
               dskno to the cache.  If no count is given, read all of
               side dskno into the cache.

          startdump [01]
               Suspend (0) or restart (1) the background dump process.

               Verify that the superblock on the WORM is readable,
               ignoring the cached copy.

          blockcmp [wbno] [cbno]
               Compares the WORM block wbno with the cache block cbno
               and prints the first 10 differences, if any.

     FS(8)                                                       FS(8)

          acct Prints how many times each user has caused the system
               to allocate new space on the WORM; the units are mega-

               Clears the accounting records for acct.

          Date prints the current date.  It may be adjusted using
          +-seconds.  With no sign, it sets the date to the absolute
          number of seconds since 00:00 Jan 1, 1970 GMT; with a sign
          it trims the current time.

          Disallow restores permission checking back to normal after a
          file system has been initialized.

          Duallow sets permissions such that the named user can read
          and search any directories.  This is the permission neces-
          sary to do a du(1) command anywhere in the file system to
          discover disk usage.

          Dump starts a dump to WORM immediately for the named
          filesystem, or the current filesystem if none is named.
          File service is suspended while the cache is scanned; ser-
          vice resumes when the copy to WORM starts.

          Files prints for every connection the number of allocated

          Fstat prints the current status of each named file, includ-
          ing uid, gid, wuid (uid of the last user to modify the
          file), size, qid, and disk addresses.

          Flag toggles flags, initially all off:

          allchans       Print channels in who output.
          arp            Report ARP activity.
          attach         Report as connections are made to the file
          authdebug      Report authentications.
          authdisable    Disable authentication.
          chat           (Very noisy.)  Print all 9P messages to and
                         from the server.
          error          Report 9P errors.
          il             Report IL errors.
          route          Report received RIP packets.
          ro             Report I/O on the WORM device.
          sntp           Report SNTP activity.

          If given a second numeric channel argument, as reported by
          who, the flag is altered only on that connection.

          Halt does a sync and halts the machine, returning to the

     FS(8)                                                       FS(8)

          boot ROM.

          Hangup clunks all the fids on the named channel, which has
          the same format as in the output of the who command.

          Newuser requires a name argument.  With no options it adds
          user name, with group leader name, to /adm/users and makes
          the directory /usr/name owned by user and group name. The
          options are

          ?          Print the entry for name.
          :          Add a group: add the name to /adm/users but don't
                     create the directory.  By convention, groups are
                     numbered starting from 10000, users from 0.
          newname    Rename existing user name to newname.
          =leader    Change the leader of name to leader. If leader is
                     missing, remove the existing leader.
          +member    Add member to the member list of name.
          -member    Remove existing member from the member list of

          After a successful newuser command the file server over-
          writes /adm/users to reflect the internal state of the user

          Noattach disables attach(5) messages, in particular for sys-
          tem maintenance.  Previously attached connections are unaf-
          fected.  Another noattach will enable normal behavior.

          Passwd sets the machine's password and writes it in non-
          volatile RAM.

          Printconf prints the system configuration information.

          Profile 1 clears the profiling buffer and enables profiling;
          profile 0 stops profiling and writes the data to
          /adm/kprofdata for use by kprof (see prof(1)). If a number
          is not specified, the profiling state toggles.

          Remove removes files.

          Route maintains an IP routing table.  The subcommands are:

          add dest gate [mask]
                              Add a static route from IP address dest
                              using gateway gate with an optional sub-
                              net mask.
          delete dest         Delete an entry from the routing table.
          print               Display the contents of the routing
          ripon               Enables the table to be filled from RIP

     FS(8)                                                       FS(8)

          ripoff              Disables the table from being updated by
                              RIP packets.

          Sntp kick queries the SNTP server (see fsconfig(8)) and sets
          the time with its response.

          The stat commands are connected with a service or device
          identified by the last character of the name: d, SCSI tar-
          gets; e, Ethernet controllers; i, IDE/ATA targets; m, Mar-
          vell SATA targets; w, cached WORM.  The stata command prints
          overall statistics about the file system.  The stats command
          takes an optional argument identifying the characters of
          stat commands to run.  The option is remembered and becomes
          the default for subsequent stats commands if it begins with
          a minus sign.

          Sync writes dirty blocks in memory to the magnetic disk

          Time reports the time required to execute the command.

          Trace with no options prints the set of queue-locks held by
          each process in the file server.  If things are quiescent,
          there should be no output.  With an argument number it
          prints a stack traceback of that process.

          Users uses the contents of file (default /adm/users) to ini-
          tialize the file server's internal representation of the
          users structure.  Incorrectly formatted entries in file will
          be ignored.  If file is explicitly default, the system
          builds a minimal functional users table internally; this can
          help recover from disasters.  If the file cannot be read,
          you must run

               users default

          for the system to function.  The default table looks like


          Version reports when the file server was last compiled and
          last rebooted.

     FS(8)                                                       FS(8)

          Who reports, one per line, the names of users connected to
          the file server and the status of their connections.  The
          first number printed on each line is the channel number of
          the connection.  If users are given the output selects con-
          nections owned by those users.

          Wormeject moves the WORM disk in slot tunit of the first
          jukebox to the output shelf.

          Wormingest moves the WORM disk from the input shelf of the
          first jukebox to slot tunit.

          Wormoffline takes drive of the first jukebox out of service;
          wormonline puts it back in service.

          Wormreset put discs back where the jukebox thinks they
          belong, and does this for all jukeboxes.

          When the file server boots, it prints the message

               for config mode hit a key within 5 seconds

          If a character is typed within 5 seconds of the message
          appearing, the server will enter config mode.  See
          fsconfig(8) for the commands available in config mode.  The
          system also enters config mode if, at boot time, the non-
          volatile RAM does not appear to contain a valid configura-

          Exsort is a regular command to be run on a CPU server, not
          on the file server console.  It reads the named file
          (default /adm/cache) and sorts the cache disk block numbers
          contained therein.  It assumes the numbers are 4-byte inte-
          gers and guesses the endianness by looking at the data.  It
          then prints statistics about the cache.  With option -w it
          writes the sorted data back to file.

          Ken Thompson, ``The Plan 9 File Server''.


          The worm* commands should accept an argument identifying a