KTRANS(1) KTRANS(1) NAME ktrans - language transliterator SYNOPSIS ktrans [ -G ] [ -l lang ] [ kbdtap ] DESCRIPTION Ktrans transliterates a stream of keyboard events. Without any arguments, ktrans reads events from standard input and writes out converted events to stdout. If a kbdtap file is given, it is used for both input and output instead. Ktrans starts in a passthrough mode, echoing out the input with no conversions. Control characters are used to give instruc- tions, the following control sequences are used to switch between languages: ctl-t English (Passthrough). ctl-n Japanese Hiragana. ctl-k Japanese Katakana. ctl-c Chinese. ctl-r Russian. ctl-o Greek. ctl-s Korean. ctl-v Vietnamese. CONVERSION Conversion is done in two layers, an implicit layer for unambiguous mappings, and an explicit layer for selecting one match out of a list of ambiguous matches. The following control characters are used for conversion instructions. ctl-\ Explicitly match the current input, consecutive inputs of ctl-\ will cycle through all the possible options. KTRANS(1) KTRANS(1) ctl-l Reset the current input buffer. The implicit layer happens automatically as characters are input, transforming a consecutive set of key strokes in to their rune counterpart. A series of runes may then be explicitly matched by cycling through a list of options. Ktrans automatically maintains a buffer of the current series of key strokes being considered for an explicit match, and resets that buffer on logical "word" breaks depending on the language. However manual hints of when to reset this buffer will likely still be required. Input is always passed along, when a match is found Ktrans will emit backspaces to clear the input sequence and replace it with the matched sequence. DISPLAY Ktrans will provide a graphical display of current explicit conversion candidates as implicit conversion is done. Candi- dates are highlighted as a user cycles through them. At the bottom of the list is an exit button for quitting the pro- gram. Keyboard input typed in to the window is transliter- ated but discarded, providing a scratch input space. The -G option disables this display. KEY MAPPING For convenience, the control characters used by ktrans can be mapped directly to physical keys through modifications of the kbmap (see kbdfs(8)). The /sys/lib/kbmap/jp mapping will turn language input keys present on Japanese A01/106/109(A) in to control sequences matching their label: Henkan Convert to Kanji (ctl-\) Muhenkan Clear Kanji buffer (ctl-l) Hiragana / Katakana Switch to Hiragana (ctl-n) Shift + Hiragana / Katakana Switch to Katakana (ctl-v) Hankaku / Zenkaku Switch to Hiragana (ctl-n) Shift + Hankaku / Zenkaku Switch to passthrough (ctl-t) Shift + Space KTRANS(1) KTRANS(1) Convert to Kanji (ctl-\). This is a fallback for key- boards without a physical Henkan key. JAPANESE The Hiragana and Katakana modes implicitly turn Hepburn rep- resentations in to their Kana counterparts. Explicit conver- sions combine sequences of Hiragana in to Kanji. Capital Latin input is used for hinting. For adjectives and verbs, a single capital is used as an Okurigana hint. For example, 動かす is typed as 'ugoKasu[^\]'. The hint serves two purposes, it is provided as part of the explicit sequence for Kanji lookup and denotes that the following runes are Okurigana. For particles, the entire Kana may be input in upper case. This similarly denotes the end of the Kanji portion of the sequence, but is not used as part of the lookup sequence itself. So to write 私の猫 the user types "watashiNO[^\]neko[^\]". Note that in both cases we have successfully communicated to krans when to reset the explicit match buffer without needing to explicitily give a ctl-l character. CHINESE The Wubizixing input method is used. No implicit conversion is done, explicit conversion interprets Latin characters as their Wubi counterparts to do lookup of Hanzi. RUSSIAN Implicit layer converts latin to Cyrillic; the translitera- tion is mostly phonetic, with ' for myagkij-znak (ь), '' for tverdyj-znak (ъ) yo for ё, j for i-kratkaya (й). VIETNAMESE Implicit conversion is modeled after Telex, supporting stan- dard diacritic suffixes. KOREAN Mapping is done by emulating a Dubeolsik layout, with each latin character mapping to a single Jamo. Sequences of up to three Jamo are automatically converted to Hangul syllables. EXAMPLES To type the following Japanese text: 私は毎日35以歩いて 更に10電車に乗って学校にいます 健康の維にも役だっていますが なかなかたのしいものです your keyboard typing stream should be: watashiHA[^\]mainichi[^\]35[^l]fun[^\]ijou[^\]aruIte,[^\] KTRANS(1) KTRANS(1) saraNI[^\]10[^l]fun[^\]denshaNI[^\]noTte[^\]gakkouNI[^\] kayoImasu.[\n]kenkouNO[^\]ijiNImo[^\]yakuDAtteimasuga,[^\] nakanakatanoshiImonodesu.[\n] where [^\] and [^l] indicate 'ctl-\' and 'ctl-l', respec- tively. SOURCE /sys/src/cmd/ktrans SEE ALSO rio(4) kbdfs(8) BUGS There is no hint from rio when the user moves the cursor, as such moving it is unlikely to result in what the user expects. Plan9 lacks support for rendering combinational Unicode sequences, limiting the use of some code ranges. HISTORY Ktrans was originally written by Kenji Okamoto in August of 2000 for the 2nd edition of Plan 9. It was imported in to 9front in July of 2022, with patches by several contribu- tors. It was towed inside the environment during the 2022 9front hackathon.