ACID(1)                                                   ACID(1)

          acid, truss, trump - debugger

          acid [ -kqw ] [ -l library ] [ -m machine ] [ pid ] [
          textfile ]

          acid -l truss textfile

          acid -l trump [ pid ] [ textfile ]

          Acid is a programmable symbolic debugger.  It can inspect
          one or more processes that share an address space.  A pro-
          gram to be debugged may be specified by the process id of a
          running or defunct process, or by the name of the program's
          text file (8.out by default).  At the prompt, acid will
          store function definitions or print the value of expres-
          sions.  Options are

          -w       Allow the textfile to be modified.

          -q       Print variable renamings at startup.

          -l library
                   Load from library at startup; see below.

          -m machine
                   Assume instructions are for the given CPU type (one
                   of amd64, 386, etc., as listed in 2c(1), or
                   sunsparc or mipsco for the  manufacturer-defined
                   instruction notation for those processors) instead
                   of using the magic number to select the CPU type.

          -k       Debug the kernel state for the process, rather than
                   the user state.

          At startup, acid obtains standard function definitions from
          the library file /sys/lib/acid/port, architecture-dependent
          functions from /sys/lib/acid/$objtype, user-specified func-
          tions from $home/lib/acid, and further functions from -l
          files.  Definitions in any file may override previously
          defined functions.  If the function acidinit() is defined,
          it will be invoked after all libraries have been loaded.
          See 2c(1) for information about creating acid functions for
          examining data structures.

          Symbols of the program being debugged become integer vari-
          ables whose values are addresses.  Contents of addresses are

     ACID(1)                                                   ACID(1)

          obtained by indirection.  Local variables are qualified by
          function name, for example main:argv.  When program symbols
          conflict with acid words, distinguishing $ signs are pre-
          fixed.  Such renamings are reported at startup if the option
          -q is enabled.

          Variable types (integer, float, list, string) and formats
          are inferred from assignments.  Truth values false/true are
          attributed to zero/nonzero integers or floats and to
          empty/nonempty lists or strings.  Lists are sequences of
          expressions surrounded by {} and separated by commas.

          Expressions are much as in C, but yield both a value and a
          format.  Casts to complex types are allowed.  Lists admit
          the following operators, with subscripts counted from 0.

               head list
               tail list
               append list, element
               delete list, subscript

          Format codes are the same as in db(1). Formats may be
          attached to (unary) expressions with \, e.g.  (32*7)\D.
          There are two indirection operators, * to address a core
          image, @ to address a text file.  The type and format of the
          result are determined by the format of the operand, whose
          type must be integer.

          Statements are

               if expr then statement [ else statement ]
               while expr do statement
               loop expr, expr do statement
               defn name(args) { statement }
               defn name
               builtin name(args)
               local name
               return expr
               whatis [  name ]

          The statement defn name clears the definition for name. A
          defn may override a built-in function; prefixing a function
          call with builtin ignores any overriding defn, forcing the
          use of the built-in function.

          Here is a partial list of functions; see the manual for a
          complete list.

          stk()         Print a stack trace for current process.
          lstk()        Print a stack trace with values of local vari-

     ACID(1)                                                   ACID(1)

          gpr()         Print general registers.  Registers can also
                        be accessed by name, for example *R0.
          spr()         Print special registers such as program
                        counter and stack pointer.
          fpr()         Print floating-point registers.
          regs()        Same as spr();gpr().
                        Expression expr with format given by the char-
                        acter value of expression format.
          src(address)  Print 10 lines of source around the program
          Bsrc(address) Get the source line for the program address
                        into a window of a running sam(1) and select
          line(address) Print source line nearest to the program
          source()      List current source directories.
                        Add a source directory to the list.
          filepc(where) Convert a string of the form
                        sourcefile:linenumber to a machine address.
                        Convert a machine address to a source file
                        Convert a machine address to a source line
          bptab()       List breakpoints set in the current process.
                        Set a breakpoint in the current process at the
                        given address.
                        Delete a breakpoint from the current process.
          wptab()       List watchpoints set in the current process.
                        Set a watchpoint for the len bytes at the
                        given address.  type is "r", "w" or "rw" to
                        trap read accesses, write accesses or both,
                        Delete all watchpoints set for the given
          cont()        Continue execution of current process and wait
                        for it to stop.
          step()        Execute a single machine instruction in the
                        current process.
          func()        Step repeatedly until after a function return.
          stopped(pid)  This replaceable function is called automati-
                        cally when the given process stops.  It nor-
                        mally prints the program counter and returns
                        to the prompt.
          asm(address)  Disassemble 30 machine instructions beginning

     ACID(1)                                                   ACID(1)

                        at the given address.
                        Print a block of memory interpreted according
                        to a string of format codes.
                        Like mem(), repeated for n consecutive blocks.
                        Print the values of the expressions.
                        Start a new process with arguments given as a
                        string and halt at the first instruction.
          new()         Like newproc(), but take arguments (except
                        argv[0]) from string variable progargs.
          win()         Like new(), but run the process in a separate
          start(pid)    Start a stopped process.
          kill(pid)     Kill the given process.
          setproc(pid)  Make the given process current.
          rc(string)    Escape to the shell, rc(1), to execute the
                        command string.

          There are a number of acid `libraries' that provide higher-
          level debugging facilities.  Two notable examples are truss
          and trump, which use acid to trace system calls (truss) and
          memory allocation (trump).  Both require starting acid on
          the program, either by attaching to a running process or by
          executing new() on a binary (perhaps after setting
          progargs), stopping the process, and then running truss() or
          trump() to execute the program under the scaffolding.  The
          output will be a trace of the system calls (truss) or memory
          allocation and free calls (trump) executed by the program.
          When finished tracing, stop the process and execute
          untruss() or untrump() followed by cont() to resume execu-

          Start to debug /bin/ls; set some breakpoints; run up to the
          first one:

               % acid /bin/ls
               /bin/ls: mips plan 9 executable
               acid: new()
               70094: system call  _main     ADD  $-0x14,R29
               70094: breakpoint   main+0x4  MOVW R31,0x0(R29)
               acid: pid
               acid: argv0 = **main:argv\s
               acid: whatis argv0
               integer variable format s

     ACID(1)                                                   ACID(1)

               acid: *argv0
               acid: bpset(ls)
               acid: cont()
               70094: breakpoint  ls    ADD  $-0x16c8,R29

          Display elements of a linked list of structures:

               complex Str { 'D' 0 val; 'X' 4 next; };
               complex Str s;
               s = *headstr;
               while s != 0 do{
                    print(s.val, "\n");
                    s =;

          Note the use of the . operator instead of ->.

          Display an array of bytes declared in C as char array[].


          This example gives array string format, then prints the
          string beginning at the address (in acid notation) *array.

          Trace the system calls executed by ls(1):

               % acid -l truss /bin/ls
               /bin/ls:386 plan 9 executable

               acid: progargs = "-l lib/profile"
               acid: new()
               acid: truss()
               open("#c/pid", 0)
                    return value: 3
               pread(3, 0x7fffeeac, 20, -1)
                    return value: 12
                    data: "        166 "
               stat("lib/profile", 0x0000f8cc, 113)
                    return value: 65
               open("/env/timezone", 0)
                    return value: 3
               pread(3, 0x7fffd7c4, 1680, -1)
                    return value: 1518
                    data: "EST -18000 EDT -14400
                  9943200   25664400   41392800   57718800   73447200   89168400

     ACID(1)                                                   ACID(1)

                104896800  ..."
                    return value: 0
               pwrite(1, "--rw-rw-r-- M 9 rob rob 2519 Mar 22 10:29 lib/profile
               ", 54, -1)
               --rw-rw-r-- M 9 rob rob 2519 Mar 22 10:29 lib/profile
                    return value: 54
               166: breakpoint     _exits+0x5     INTB $0x40
               acid: cont()



          2a(1), 2c(1), 2l(1), mk(1), db(1)
          Phil Winterbottom, ``Acid Manual''.

          At termination, kill commands are proposed for processes
          that are still active.

          There is no way to redirect the standard input and standard
          output of a new process.
          Source line selection near the beginning of a file may pick
          an adjacent file.
          With the extant stepping commands, one cannot step through
          instructions outside the text segment and it is hard to
          debug across process forks.